Amsterdam is the largest city in the Netherlands famous for it's liberal laws, red light districts, canals, windmills, and "coffee" culture. Holland is the name of two states in the Netherlands and not the country. Dutch is the name of the language and the inhabitants. When walking in the city, stay out of the bike lanes and watch out for bikes!
Where You're Docked
Cruise ships dock at Passenger Terminal Amsterdam just east of the Centraal Station right in the city center. There is a tram stop outside where you can take tram 26 one stop to Centraal Station (the city's main transport hub) or you can easily walk to the station (15 minutes). Cruise schedule and info here http://www.amsterdamcruiseport.com
Felison Terminal by the entrance to the North Sea may also be used. Transportation info here http://www.amsterdamcruise.nl/getting-here-fct
Money and Tipping
The best way to get around in Amsterdam is to either walk, rent a bike, or take the tram or metro network. Fares are €2.80 for a one hour disposable chip card (available only on tram 26) or €7.50 for a day pass (Dec 2014, multiple days available as well). Tram and metro map linked from here http://en.gvb.nl/reisinformatie/plattegronden/Pages/plattegronden.aspx Transit info here http://www.gvb.nl If you follow a canal, you will end up doing a semi-circular loop since canals and streets ring out from Centraal Station.
The IAmsterdam card offers one to three day transit passes with discounted/free entry to many attractions. Details here http://www.iamsterdam.com/en/
Amsterdam is very bike friendly with separated lanes, a bike share system and many shops offering rentals. Bike tours are also a good way to see the city. As a pedestrian, make sure you are not walking in a bike lane.
Another way to explore the city is with the hop-on, hop-off canal bus. http://www.canal.nl/en/canal-bus City Sightseeing offers HOHO bus tours. http://www.citysightseeingamsterdam.nl/ Multiple companies run canal tours.
To/From the Airport
Taking the train is the easiest way to get from Schipol Airport (airport code: AMS) to Centraal Station. Ticket machines may not accept foreign credit cards so it's better to find a staffed counter to purchase tickets. Trains are frequent, tickets cost €4, and journey time is under 20 minutes. http://www.schiphol.nl A taxi should cost around €40. Train info here http://www.ns.nl
Search hotels in Amsterdam here
Shopping & Restaurants
There are narrow pedestrian shopping streets on Nieuwendijk and Kalverstraat. There are a few flower markets including a floating one on Singel between Muntplein and Koningsplein. Albert Cuyp Market is a famous street market located on the same named street. It is open 9:30am to 5pm Monday to Saturday. Nine Streets is an area with unique and interesting shops.
Some department stores have excellent, self-serve cafeterias providing good value. La Place has restaurants on Kalverstraat and at the library by the cruise terminal. Hema has inexpensive cafes on both Nieuwendijk and direct across La Place on Kalverstraat. Authentic chinese food can be found in Chinatown. Indonesian and Surinamese restaurants are also popular with these countries being former Dutch colonies. For local specialties, try croquettes, poffertjes (mini dutch pancakes), oliebollen (dutch donuts), stroopwafel (waffles with embedded syrup), fries with mayo, and herring for the more adventurous. Croquettes can be found at the coin-operated, self-service chain Febo and even McDonalds has a McKroket burger.
There is a post office in Centraal Station.
Restaurants and cafes may provide free wifi to customers. The public library opposite the railroad tracks from Passenger Terminal Amsterdam has internet and wifi for €1 for every 30 minutes. http://www.oba.nl/oba/english/internet-and-wifi-in-the-library.html
Maps (right-click to save)
Downloadable pdf version http://assets.gvb.nl/plattegronden/Railkaart2016.pdf
Amsterdam Weather Forecast